During WW II was this world’s most powerful tuneable VLF (valve) transmitter
by: Klaus Herold
(pdf, 1.8 MB)(in German language)
Huff Duff versus German U-boat wireless communications 1939-1945
wireless station was located near Calbe a/d Milde (south of Magdeburg). It had
to replace the Nauen VLF station (north of Berlin), which antenna system only
had 10% radiation efficiency.
Goliath was designed by: C. Lorenz Company.
It used an Alexanderson type antenna (resonant umbrella system, each leg was separately tuned, creating a huge omnidirectional magnetic-loop (H- fields)), and was fully tuneable by means of servo-controls. The photographs had been taken during its dismantling in 1946.
It could effectively generate 1000 kW antenna power, although, for practical reasons, his radiated power had to be reduced to maximal 800 kW.
(full details can be found in this appendix):
Frequency range: 15 - 60 kHz
Antenna-power 1000 kW (total efficiency 50 %)
Antenna resistance (Strahlungswiderstand) @ 15 kHz 75 mΩ ... @ 60 kHz 1150 mΩ
Earth resistance @ 15 kHz 15 mΩ ....@ 60 kHz 65 mΩ
Antenna voltage maximal 200 kV rms
Antenna current (leaving the antenna tuner) 400 A
Its signals could, for instance, be received by submerged submarines near Capetown and/or the straight of Mallaca (Penang), at about 8 - 12 m under the surface (measured from the top of the conning-tower) (see for details pdf page 12) .
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